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Object-Oriented Programming Concepts In Java

Exploring Object-Oriented Programming Concepts In Java

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Java is one of the most popular and widely recognized computer/software programming languages used for games, websites, and application development. Java is designed in a way that its code can be implemented and reused on all platforms that support Java. this further implies that if you are incorporating Java in your server, database, or website, then you can compile the codes and reuse them for the same platform. You don’t have to make a new code each time for the same platform rather you can extract the code you have made once and reuse it on all platforms that support Java. This is one of the best features of Java as it is less time-consuming and cost-effective. We can presume that this unique feature of Java has contributed to its immense popularity, with 466,189 companies incorporating Java into their systems and databases.

Many people think that Java and Javascript are the same thing, or maybe Javascript is a feature of Java. However, that is not true. Although both of them use language that has C-like syntax, they are entirely different from each other. Javascript is typically compared with Typescript and if you search Typescript v/s Javascript on Google, most of the results will show the differences between them.

Moving on, we will now look further into object-oriented programming in Java and its concepts. Before that, we will first provide an overview of object-oriented programming (OOPs) in Java.

What is basically object-oriented programming in Java?

Object-oriented programming (OOPs) in Java is basically programming designed for the objects to operate. Objects in this case are tangible items that we use on a daily basis. For example, cars, laptops, and mobile phones are all objects since they have attributes and methods to operate. For instance, your car has some attributes such as manufacturer name, color, size, shape, etc. Methods include pressing brakes, and accelerators, changing gears, and stopping the car.

Furthermore, objects carry out tasks and functions which are mainly based on class. Class is basically the attributes and features of an object. Moreover, class differentiates the features of one object from the other. For example, when you switch on your television, the power button is the class that carries codes and gives instructions to the remote to switch on the television.

Adding on, there are four major concepts of object-oriented programming (OOPs) in Java, which include abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. We will cover all of these concepts in detail in this article.


Abstraction is a feature of OOPs in Java that only shows the instructions to perform a task of an object. It keeps the detailed and complex codes and programming invisible and protected. To simplify, let’s consider the previous example of a television remote. If you want to turn up the volume of your television, you can simply press the volume up button on your remote. You don’t have to look into the codes and programming that allow the remote button to increase the volume of your television. Hence, we can interpret that abstraction keeps all the unnecessary and irrelevant information to itself.


As the term suggests, encapsulation keeps the code and data of one class protected and hidden from the other. It protects the code of each class hidden so that they are neither visible nor accessible to outsiders. Thus, the term encapsulation is used to describe this concept. Furthermore, you can also reuse the code of each class to perform the same task through the object, without changing or modifying it. The keywords used for encapsulation are ‘private’, ‘public’ and ‘protected.’

To clarify, let’s take an example of emails. If you want to keep your emails personal and don’t want anyone to access/read them, you are encapsulating them in the email application or web browser. Therefore, you are the only one who can read, compose, reply, and delete emails and no one else can access or alter your emails. hence, you have encapsulated your emails.


As mentioned earlier, object-oriented programming in Java allows the code in a class to be reused for the same or similar tasks. Therefore, the concept of inheritance in Java is the reflection of this process. For instance, if a company wants to manufacture the same camera with some additional features, they can reuse the code of the previous camera in the new camera that shares the same features as the old one. The keyword that is used to carry out the function of inheritance of codes among classes in objects is ‘extends.’

The class that inherits code from the preceding class is called a ‘subclass’, and the class that inherits or passes its code to the new class is known as a ‘superclass.’ 


This concept of object-oriented programming (OOPs) takes its inspiration from inheritance, with some changes. Polymorphism allows similar objects to share classes and attributes, in terms of functionality. The objects are different with different classes, but they function in exactly the same way, provided that they share some common attributes or methods. For example, if you have pets at your home, such as a cat and rabbit. Although they fall under the same category of animals and share a common attribute to eat. However, their classes are different as they don’t eat the same food. Therefore, you share the code and method ‘eat’ of one class, in this case, rabbit with another class cat and instruct them to do so. Hence, they will eat the same food.

This concept of OOPs in Java allows more flexibility and simplification to write and share the code with classes of similar objects, overriding their distinct attributes. Hence, it also encourages reusing code and also saves time. There is no specific keyword for polymorphism, as you can adjust the codes within the classes of objects yourself, independently.


Considering all the above-mentioned concepts of OOPs in Java, we can conclude that this programming has added ease in the development and operational process of every website, application, software, game, or object we use today. It allows to sharing of codes among classes of the same and similar objects and keeps the code secure and protected from being accessed by unauthorized users. Its ability to reuse codes is a feature that makes it stand out in the tech and software industry as compared to other programming systems.

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